The Biography of Alexander

The Biography of Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great. He was born on July 356 BC in Pella, the capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

He was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus.

Alexander was destined for greatness from an early age, and his life would be one of the most legendary in history.

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Early Life and Education

As the son of a king, Alexander received a privileged education.

He was tutored by some of the most brilliant minds of his time, including Aristotle, who taught him philosophy, politics, and natural sciences.

He also received military tactics and leadership training from his father, who had ambitious plans to conquer the Persian Empire.

Rise to Power

In 336 BC, Philip II was assassinated, and Alexander, at age 20, inherited the throne of Macedon.

He quickly consolidated his power by suppressing revolts in Greece and securing the loyalty of his army.

He then turned his attention to the Persian Empire, which had long threatened Macedon and Greece.

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Conquest of Persia

This Biography of Alexander cannot be complete without outlining his conquest of Persia. Alexander’s campaign against Persia began in 334 BC and would take him a decade to complete.

The Persians vastly outnumbered his army, but Alexander’s superior tactics and leadership allowed him to win a series of stunning victories.

He defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC and then conquered Egypt, where he was welcomed as a liberator.

In 331 BC, Alexander faced his greatest challenge: the Battle of Gaugamela.

Despite being outnumbered by more than two to one, Alexander led his army to a decisive victory, effectively ending Persian resistance.

He then marched on to Babylon and Susa, where he captured enormous amounts of treasure and wealth.


Alexander’s conquests had far-reaching consequences for the ancient world. He founded many new cities, including Alexandria in Egypt, which would become one of the ancient world’s greatest centers of learning and culture.

He also spread Greek culture and ideas throughout the lands he conquered, a process known as Hellenization.

Alexander’s legacy also includes his military tactics and strategies, which are still studied by military leaders today.

He was also a master of maneuver and surprise, and his use of combined arms, including infantry, cavalry, and siege engines, set new standards for warfare.

Death and Succession

In 323 BC, Alexander died at 32, possibly from malaria or poisoning. He had no legitimate heir, and his generals immediately began jockeying for power.

After a period of instability, his empire was eventually divided among his closest advisers, who became known as the Diadochi, or Successors.

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Rounding Up

Alexander III of Macedon was one of the most influential figures in ancient history. He conquered much of the world and created a vast empire for centuries.

His military tactics, strategic thinking, and leadership skills remain admired and studied today.

However, Alexander’s legacy has controversy. His conquests were often brutal, and his treatment of conquered peoples and territories was sometimes harsh.

His personal life was also marked by tragedy, including the deaths of several close companions and family members.

Despite these complexities, Alexander remains a fascinating and influential figure whose impact is still felt in the modern world.

His conquests helped to spread Greek culture and influence across the Mediterranean world, and his legacy can be seen in the many monuments, institutions, and traditions that bear his name.

As we continue to study and debate the life and achievements of Alexander the Great, we are reminded of the enduring power of leadership, ambition, and the pursuit of greatness.

While his legacy is not without flaws, his impact on history remains undeniable, and his story continues to inspire and captivate people worldwide.


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